Noida Sector 12

Noida Sector 11


Preet Vihar, Delhi

Pandav Nagar, Delhi






Blood Cancer: Types, Causes, and Treatment Options

By Dr. A.P. Dubey in Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT) Cancer Radiation Oncology Haematology & BMT

Dec 16, 2023

Blood cancer, medically referred to as hematological malignancy, encompasses a group of complex diseases that profoundly affect the production and function of blood cells. Understanding the intricacies of blood cancer, including its types, underlying causes, common symptoms, diagnostic methods, and available treatments, is crucial for patients and their families. In this article, we will embark on an informative journey to demystify this challenging disease.

Types of Blood Cancer:

Blood cancer manifests in several forms, with the primary categories being leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Leukemia originates in the bone marrow, disrupting the production of white blood cells. Lymphoma affects the lymphatic system, comprising lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow. Multiple myeloma, on the other hand, targets plasma cells, integral in antibody production. Each subtype presents distinct characteristics, necessitating specialized treatment strategies.

Causes and Risk Factors:

The etiology of blood cancer is often elusive. Nevertheless, identifiable risk factors include genetic predisposition, exposure to certain chemicals or radiation, viral infections like the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Epstein-Barr virus, compromised immune function, and a history of specific blood disorders or prior cancer therapies. Importantly, the presence of risk factors does not guarantee the development of blood cancer, as many cases occur sporadically.

Common Symptoms and Diagnostic Procedures:

The symptoms of blood cancer are diverse and can differ according to the type and stage of the disease. General signs encompass persistent fatigue, unexplained weight loss, susceptibility to infections, easy bruising or bleeding, bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, and night sweats. Diagnosing blood cancer can be intricate due to the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Diagnosis typically involves blood tests to assess cell counts and abnormalities, imaging techniques such as CT scans or PET scans, bone marrow biopsy, and lymph node biopsy. These investigations provide invaluable insights into the type, extent, and stage of the cancer.

Treatment Options:

Treating blood cancer necessitates a multi-faceted approach tailored to the patient’s unique circumstances. Common treatment modalities include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplantation, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Chemotherapy employs potent drugs to eradicate cancer cells, while radiation therapy utilizes high-energy beams to target malignant cells in specific areas. Targeted therapy and immunotherapy represent cutting-edge approaches designed to selectively combat cancer cells or bolster the body’s immune system. Stem cell transplantation is a procedure that entails the replacement of damaged bone marrow with healthy stem cells. Treatment plans are meticulously crafted, taking into account the blood cancer’s specific attributes, stage, and the patient’s overall health.