Urinary Stone (Kidney stones) Disease: Symptoms and Causes,
Kidney stones have become a common health problem in recent times. In India urolithiasis affects about 2 million people every year and the number of patients suffering from kidney stones has increased drastically over the years. Also, it is a reoccurring condition and the chances of having kidney stones again are around 50% in the next ten years. In India, some states have a higher incidence of kidney stone cases (the “stones belt”) they are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, and states of north-east.
Kidney stones can present with excruciating pain and most patients need to visit the emergency department due to extreme pain, in case of an emergency one should immediately contact the best kidney hospital in Noida. A single event does not cause kidney failure but recurrent episodes of kidney stones can damage kidney cells and can lead to loss of kidney function. It is advisable to go for a routine check-up at the best hospital in Noida to avoid complications.
Kidney stones are a common cause of blood in the urine and pain in the abdomen, flank, or groin. One in 11 people suffer from kidney stones at some point in their life and it affects men 2 times more than women. Kidney Stones formation is related to decreased urine volume or increased of stone-forming components such as calcium, oxalate, uric acid, cysteine, xanthine, and phosphate in the urine. Other reasons for stones formation is a decrease in citrate levels in urine or when there is an imbalance in the acidity of urine.
Causes of Kidney Stones
Kidney stones occur when some of the components in the urine stick together due to certain conditions and form crystals which eventually become stones. These situations may arise due to :
- Inadequate hydration and subsequent low urine volume
- Imbalance in urinary pH
- Due to abnormal urinary tract obstructing urine flow
- Dietary factors (e.g., high oxalate or high sodium diet)
- Urinary tract infections
- Certain medications
- Genetic factors
Symptoms of Kidney Stones
- Pain in the abdomen, flank, and loin
- Dysuria (painful urination)
- Can present with symptoms of Urinary tract infection
- Fevers or chills, usually due to infection
- Nonspecific response to infection or inflammation
- Increased frequency of passing urine
- Haematuria (blood in the urine)
- Nausea, vomiting (if the pain is severe)
Diagnosis for Kidney Stones
Diagnosis is usually confirmed by one or a combination of tests to confirm the size, shape, position, and extent of the stone in the kidneys
- KUB X-ray (Kidney urinary bladder)
- CT (Computerised tomography) scan the abdomen
- USG (Ultrasonogram) abdomen
Types of Kidney Stones
Determining the type of stone is necessary for choosing the appropriate treatment. There are four types of kidney stones or renal calculi that can affect patients.
- Calcium stones (excess amount of parathyroid hormone production, excess calcium leak into the urine, excess oxalate in diet, less magnesium and citrate in the blood).
- Uric acid stones are formed when urine pH is less than 5, high intake foods like fish, legumes, meat. These stones may also be associated with a disease called gout.
- Struvite stones (caused by bacteria that breakdown urea into ammonia).
- Cystine stones are mostly genetic.
Dr. Ashutosh Singh