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Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease


By, Dr. Deepak Talwar
Chair & Director- Metro Centre for Pulmonology & Sleep Medicine
Metro Hospitals & Heart Institute, Noida, UP

INTRODUCTION

Every year, month of November is observed as the COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) awareness month and November 19 is indicated as the World COPD day. It is a unique event which aims to highlight the challenges of this chronic respiratory disease which is faced by more than 200 million people worldwide and claims approximately 3 million deaths every year. COPD ranks at the number 6 position in causing death and disability in low and middle income countries and is anticipated to become the leading cause of death by 2030.

Since it’s first observation in 2002 by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, the World COPD day seeks to spread awareness about the disease among public. COPD refers to a group of progressive lung diseases that obstruct the passage of air and makes it difficult to breathe. “Progressive” means the disease gets worsened with time.

UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM

The air that you inhale travels down your windpipe into the bronchial tubes or airways in your lungs. These bronchial tubes get branched into thousands of smaller, thinner tubes called bronchioles within the lungs. These tubes terminate with bunches of tiny round air sacs called alveoli.

Small blood vessels called capillaries form a network over the walls of the alveoli. When air reaches the alveoli, they inflate. Oxygen passes through them into the blood running inside the capillaries. At the same time, carbon dioxide moves from the capillaries into the air sacs causing them to deflate. This process is called gas exchange.

In COPD, less gas exchange is there because of one or more of the following:

·        Loss of elasticity in airways and air sacs.

·        Destruction, thickening or inflammation of walls of the alveoli.

·        Clogging of the airways due to excessive production of mucus.

RISK FACTOR AND CAUSES

The risk of acquiring COPD increases with age and is more common in people above the age of 45. Men and women are equally affected by COPD worldwide. It is caused by damaging of the lungs over many years, smoking (cigarettes, pipers, cigars, etc.) being the main cause.

Continuous exposure to other lung irritants such as, outdoor air pollution (including emissions from motor vehicles and industrial plants) and indoor air pollution (including tobacco smoke, NO2, carbon monoxide, etc.) are associated with the development of COPD. Particulate matter, especially PM10 and PM2.5, severely deteriorates the air quality and when present in air in alarming levels can easily trigger COPD as evidences have shown in the past.

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

In the early stages of the disease, the symptoms may not be easily noticeable. But as the disease draws up to it’s advanced stages, the symptoms become more prominent. Thus, it is important that you see your doctor as soon as you become aware of any of these symptoms. Your doctor may make you take a spirometry test which helps in assessing how efficiently your lungs function by measuring how much air you inhale and exhale and, how quickly you exhale.

The signs and symptoms of COPD include:

·        Increased breathlessness

·        Recurrent coughing (with and without sputum)

·        Wheezing

·        Tightness in the chest

TREATMENT

COPD remains incurable till now. However, lifestyle changes and treatments can help you feel better and slow the progress of the disease. A huge difference can be made by quitting smoking and avoiding lung irritants. Your doctor may also suggest you to opt for physical activity that can strengthen the muscles that help you breathe and perk up your overall wellness. Your treatment may include:

Medicines like bronchodilators which cause relaxation of the muscles around your airways, thereby, helping in opening up your airways and making breathing easier.

Oxygen Therapy- Severe COPD decreases oxygen levels in your blood below normal. Oxygen therapy can aid you in breathing properly.

Surgery- Only some people who have COPD gain from surgery. Surgery usually is the last route for people who have severe symptoms that have not improved from taking medicines. A lung transplant might be an alternative for people having very severe COPD.

World COPD day is a unique opportunity for all the members in our society to come together to educate themselves as well as the world about this unvoiced epidemic. Afterall,

“Education is the most powerful weapon we can use to change the world”.

For information and OPD Appointments, Call: +91 99104 92867

 



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Our Blood Bank is committed to provide high quality services by assuring the supply of safe and quality blood and its products to the patients. The blood bank adopts most modern technology and equipment. We’ve fully automatic ELISA processor, blood grouping and cross matching and blood component equipments. All the records and standard operative procedures (SOPs) are maintained and followed as per National and International standards.

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Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes is a full-fledged facility involved in evaluating and treating patients for diabetes, Obesity, Sexual disorders, Hirsutism, PCOD, Osteoporosis, Adrenal disorders, other endocrine disorders. We offer a wide range of treatment options for endocrine and metabolic diseases. Our specialists are the most experienced one having a long track record of successful treatment of the patients.

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With the mission of spreading mental health awareness, we provide a variety of services ranging from awareness programmes to rehabilitations. The services provided are Pharmacotherapy, Electroconvulsive Therapy, Narcoanalysis, Biofeedback, Detoxification and Rehabilitation Programmes, Deaddiction Counseling, Stress Management, Couples/ Marital Counseling and many more.

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A highly skilled team of experience Radiologists and Technicians comprises our Radiology Team. The highly advanced technology combined with high expertise ensures 100% accurate results which helps build right diagnosis. The facilities include: CT Scan (500 Slice), Advanced MRI (1.5 Tesla), 4D Ultrasound, Digital X-Ray, Bone Densitometry, Colour Doppler.

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Highly specialized team is available to deal with diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The services include Treatment of auto immune diseases like Rheumatoid Arthritis, SLE, Ankylosing-spondylosis, gout and other immunological diseases, New Biological Treatments, 24x7 physiotherapy department to deal with musculoskeletal problems and Special emphasis on joint deformity correction

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The Centre for Uro-Sciences boasts of experienced and renowned Urologists having thorough exposure to all urological disorders including complicated conditions. It is has good track record for high success rates. The treatment includes Laser prostatic surgery, Urologic Cancer Surgeries, Laparoscopic Urological Surgeries, Percutaneous Renal Surgery, Urethral Reconstructive Surgery, etc. and the facilities include ESWL (Extra corporeal shock wave Lithotripsy), Uroflowmetry, Uro Radio diagnosis, etc.

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