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Approach To Breast Cancer / Lump And Treatment For Breast Cancer

Approach To Breast Cancer / Lump And Treatment For Breast Cancer

Introduction:

Breast Cancer is one of the most common types of cancer found in women all across the globe. Breast Cancer develops in the breast tissues. Formation of lump, change in the shape or size of the breast, discharge from the nipples, red patches around the skin of the breast or dimpling of skin, these all are the symptoms of the breast cancer.  Apart from these symptoms there are certain symptoms also such as pain in the bone, swollen lymph nodes.

 

Approach to Breast Cancer / Lump:


Clinical examination and self examination of breast should be performed regularly. Majorly breast cancers get detected during mammography but for further evaluation to know whether the lump is cystic or solid, women need to go through ultrasonogarphy. Apart from physical examination, mammography and ultrasonogarphy there are other various methods for the detection of breast lump. They are:

 

MRI of breast


FNA - fine needle aspiration


The final diagnosis of breast carcinoma requires a breast biopsy.

Treatment Of Breast Cancer Stages I-III


The stage of the breast cancer is one of the important factors in making the decision about the treatment method.


Majority of women suffering from breast cancer stages I, II or III are treated with surgery, followed by chemotherapy or radiations therapy. The treatment options are affected by the personal preferences and other information about the breast cancer, such as:


If the cancer cells contain hormone receptors (it means, that if the cancer is ER-positive or PR-positive)


If the cancer cells have large amount of the HER2 protein (it means, that if the cancer is HER2-positive)


How fast the cell are growing (measured by grade or Ki-67)


Overall health of the women


Whether the woman has gone through her menopause or not


Surgery: For the treatment of breast cancer, surgery is considered as main treatment. Breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy is the surgical methods opted for the surgery. The nearby lymph nodes are also need to be checked, wither with sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) or an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND).


In other cases, breast reconstruction is done at the same time of surgery to remove the cancer.


Radiation Therapy:  If BCS has been performed, radiation therapy is usually given after the surgery to lower down the re-development of cancer cell in the breast. Women who are above the age of 70 years can consider BCS without going for radiation therapy only if:


The tumor was 2 cm or less across and has been removed completely.


None on the lymph nodes carry cancer cells.


The cancer is ER-positive or PR-positive and hormone therapy has been given.


STAGE I- At this stage the breast cancer are relatively small and have not spread to the lymph nodes or might have spread to a tiny area in the sentinel lymph node (the 1st lymph node to which cancer is likely to spread out).


STAGE II- The size of the breast cancer is larger in stage II as compared to that of stage I. In this stage the cancer has already spread to a few nearby lymph nodes.


STAGE III- At stage III the cancer size has increased that they have started growing into the nearby tissues (the kin over the breast or the muscle underneath) too much that they have spread to many nearby lymph nodes. Doctor consultation is important for the further treatment process as most women suffering from breast cancer goes through some kind of drug therapy as a part of their treatment. This process includes:


Hormone Target Therapy: hormone therapy (tamoxifen, an aromatase inhibitor, or one followed by the other). HER2 targeted drugs, such as trastuzumab (Herceptin) and pertuzumab (perjeta). These types of drugs might work best depending on the tumor’s hormone receptor status, HER2 status, and other factors.


Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy:


In target therapy treatment only the specific characteristics of cancer cells are treated, like proteins which are responsible for the rapid or abnormal growth of cancer cells. Targeted therapies are less harmful in comparison to chemotherapies, as in chemotherapies the normal and healthy cells along with cancer cells gets destroyed. Some targeted therapies work like antibodies, which are naturally developed by our immune system. At times these targeted therapies are also known as immune targeted therapies.


Pregnant women are not advised to undergo targeted therapies as these therapies are not safe during the pregnancy period.


Below are the lists of the targeted therapies that doctor use for the treatment of breast cancer:


Afinitor (the chemical name is everolimus): Afinitor is an mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor. Afinitor works against the receptor positive breast cancer cells which have stopped responding to Arimidex or Femara.  These inhibitor stops the cancer cells from getting the energy they need.


Avastin (the chemical name is bevacizumab): These work by blocking the growth of new blood vessels on which the cancer cells depend to grow and function.


Herceptin (the chemical name is trastuzumab): Herceptin works against HER2-postive breast cancers. They block the ability of the cancer cells for receiving the chemical signals that indicates the cells to grow.


Ibrance (the chemical name is palbociclib): Ibrance is a cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor. Inbrance works by stopping the cancer cells from further dividing and growing.


Kadcyla: (Chemical name- T-DM1 or ado-trastuzumab emtansine) Kadcyla is the combination of Herceptin and the chemotherapy medicine emtansine.


About us:


Metro Group of Hospitals has a dedicated 155 bedded facility, Metro Hospital and Cancer Institute, Preet Vihar, New Delhi, mainly dedicated for treatment of cancer. The hospital boasts of highly experienced team of medical, surgical, radiation, gynae oncologists and most advanced technology for 360 degree cancer treatment. For more details or appointments call: +91 88001 97020 / metro@metrohospitals.com.



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Anaesthesiology

Best Anaesthesiology

We’ve got the best Anaesthetics and Critical Care experts coupled with latest anesthesia machines ensuring adequate gas mixture delivery to the patient, Anesthetic gas monitors who ensure extreme economy and negligible theatre pollution. The department has long experience of giving successful anaesthesia in various thoracic, vascular and congenital heart disease cases.

Audiology & Speech Therapy

Best Audiology & Speech Therapy

We have well equipped Audiology and Speech Therapy Units, professionally qualified Audiologist and Speech-Therapists to conduct various tests for diagnosis of speech and hearing problems in children and adults. Using multiple range of tests, the Audiology and Speech-Therapist diagnoses degree and type of hearing loss of patient and plan out the needful rehabilitation.

Bariatric & Metabolic Surgery

Best Bariatric & Metabolic Surgery

Metro Centre for Bariatric & Metabolic (diabetic) Surgeries is an advanced set-up having complete diagnostic and surgical facilities. We provide a relaxing and satisfying experience to every patient and help them achieve their weight-loss goals.

Blood Bank

Best Blood Bank

Our Blood Bank is committed to provide high quality services by assuring the supply of safe and quality blood and its products to the patients. The blood bank adopts most modern technology and equipment. We’ve fully automatic ELISA processor, blood grouping and cross matching and blood component equipments. All the records and standard operative procedures (SOPs) are maintained and followed as per National and International standards.

Cardiology & CTVS

Best Cardiology & CTVS

Department of Cardiology is headed by Padma Vibhushan & Dr. B C Roy National Awardee Dr. Purshotam Lal, a pioneer in Interventional Cardiology consisting of a team of highly qualified and skilled interventional Cardiologists. Under his leadership, the centre has grown into the most specialized centre for angiography and angioplasty.

Dentistry

Best Dentistry

Metro Dental And Implant Centre has delivered millions of smiles over the years. The centre offers state-of-the-art dental services both through general out-patient and private OPD.

Dermatology

Best Dermatology

The centre provides a holistic, scientific and a technologically advanced approach for all dermatological and cosmetic conditions. Consultations with our experienced dermatologists ensure that the patients get the best advice, be it for skin diseases or cosmetic interventions. Our specialized services include- Pimples / Acne – Pigmentation Treatment, Cosmetic Peels, Non-surgical removal of warts, Laser treatment, as more.

Endocrinology And Diabetes

Best Endocrinology And Diabetes

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes is a full-fledged facility involved in evaluating and treating patients for diabetes, Obesity, Sexual disorders, Hirsutism, PCOD, Osteoporosis, Adrenal disorders, other endocrine disorders. We offer a wide range of treatment options for endocrine and metabolic diseases. Our specialists are the most experienced one having a long track record of successful treatment of the patients.

ENT & Cochlear Implant

Best ENT & Cochlear Implant

We provide the complete diagnostic and treatment of disease and conditions associated with the ear, nose and throat. We are well experienced in treating everything from a basic disease to doing a complicated surgery involving Otolaryngologists, Audiologists, Speech-language pathologists and other medical professionals. Services include Endoscopic Sinus Surgery, Micro-Surgery of Ear, Cochlear Implant, Rhinoplasty, Head & Neck Surgeries, and more.

Gastroenterology & Gastro Surgery

Best Gastroenterology & Gastro Surgery

Metro Centre for Liver & Digestive Diseases (Gastroenterology & GI Surgery) has combined medical and surgical department. The team of doctors has received super speciality training in their respective field which ensures high quality of care. The combined setup of Gastroenterology and GI Surgery allows quick assessment and treatment of the patient. Our surgical services include the performance of specialized and complex GI surgical procedures for the management of diseases of various parts of the GI tract.

Haemotology

Best Haemotology

Clinical Haematology unit headed by very senior clinical haematologist . To support this, Metro Path Labs are well equipped and advanced labs to handle relevant investigations related to blood, lymphnode and spleen disorders like Leukemia, Thalassemia, multiple myeloma, etc. Routine procedures done here are Bone Marrow Aspiration, Bone Marrow Biopsy, Peripheral Smear Study, Reticulocyte count.

Holistic Medicine

Best Holistic Medicine

The department aims at healing the person completely - body, mind, spirit, and emotions aimed at optimal health and wellness. This is achieved with the help of specialists and by gaining proper balance in life. Our specialists use all forms of healthcare ranging from conventional medication to alternative therapies, to treat a patient. Our doctors use the combinations of drugs and lifestyle modifications to address any condition.

Homeopathy

Best Homeopathy

We bring you the convenience of getting quality homeopathic treatment for all your chronic and long standing illnesses. We are committed to provide you the best of the information and constitutional homeopathic treatment. Diseases Treated by Homoeopathy are Infectious Diseases, Viral Diseases, Diseases of Infancy and Childhood & Allergic Disorder.

Internal Medicine

Best Internal Medicine

The Department of Internal Medicine is a full-fledged facility offering comprehensive care for general and preventive medicine for all ages. The Department has the support and back-up of all super-specialities in the hospital providing end to end services varying from diagnosis, prevention, treatment, wellness, preventive health checks, rehabilitation services and management of various medical conditions.

Interventional Radiology

Best Interventional Radiology

A sub-speciality of Radiology is a subspecialty of radiology, providing minimally invasive treatments performed under guidance of x-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound or computed tomography (CT Scan). In simple terms interventional radiologists “Not Just Diagnose But Treat too” with minimal invasive techniques. The advanced technology in Radiology provides a strong platform for efficient Interventional Radiological Procedures.

IVF

Best IVF

Metro Centre for IVF is at the forefront of delivering quality services in the field of Assisted Reproductive Techniques like IVF-IUI, ICSI, Surrogacy, etc.

Laboratory

Best Laboratory

A highly skilled team of medical professionals including physicians, medical technologists, medical technicians, lab assistants, biologists, chemist, microbiologists, geneticists, and other specialists work collaboratively to provide advanced diagnosis and laboratory services. Fully automated Robotic Arm, State-of-the-art BacT / Alert 3D Microbial Detection System etc. are among our top of the line technologies available.

Laparoscopic & General Surgery

Best Laparoscopic & General Surgery

Metro Hospitals and Heart Institute is well equipped with latest technological advancements in general and laparoscopic surgery and the centre is boasted to an advanced centre for general and laparoscopic surgeries.

Nephrology & Renal Transplant

Best Nephrology & Renal Transplant

Our department of nephrology and renal transplant is a well equipped unit with a dedicated team of skilled consultants and paramedical staff which offers patient the advantages of a multidisciplinary approach. Our center deals in treating children and adolescents with congenital and acquired kidney diseases. We accept patients at any stage of kidney disease. The services include Medical Management of Kidney Diseases, Dialysis and Renal Transplant.

Neurosciences

Best Neurosciences

The Department of Neurosciences has extremely talented and very well trained doctors who collaboratively work towards creating new paradigms for knowing the human brain condition and caring for it. Facilities include NCV, EMG, EEG, Video EEG, Botox Therapy for migraine and movement disorders (dystonia), Dedicated Stroke ICU, Neuro Rehabilitation Advanced facilities for Surgical Neurology.

Nutrition & Health

Best Nutrition & Health

A balanced diet provides complete balanced nutrition which is essential for a healthy life, enhancing the immunity of the person. The department consisting of expert dieticians provides Diet counseling according to the diagnosis of the patients, Diet counseling for different types of diseases like Diabetes, Liver diseases, Renal diseases, Diet related to pregnancy and lactation, Cardiac diseases, Weight management and many more.

Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Best Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Metro Centre For Obstetrics And Gynaecology is determined to unite their exceptional medical competence, advanced technology and novelty to offer the best treatments to the patients. Our broad spectrum of services include painless deliveries, management of high risk pregnancies/late pregnancies, gynae laparoscopic procedures, gynae onco services, pre and post natal care, amongst others.

Oncology & Onco Surgery

Best Oncology & Onco Surgery

We strive to create the best in class infrastructure, comprehensive facilities and render care and support by handholding every cancer patient in their journey. The management plan for each cancer is chalked out once the cancer is identified and staged. Treatment plan may include surgery, radiation and/or cancer medicine therapy. The team of Oncology Comprises of expert Medical Oncologists, Surgeons and Radiation Oncologists.

Ophthalmology, Metro Eye Centre

Best Ophthalmology, Metro Eye Centre

The team of highly experienced Ophthalmologists in a modern set-up perform various services like Phacoemulsification (Sutureless Cataract Surgery), YAG laser (for after cataract and glaucoma), Green laser (for diabetic and retinal eye diseases), Automated Perimetry, (For Glaucoma and Neurological visual Field), Applanation Tonometry for Glaucoma, Glaucoma surgery, Squint Surgery, etc. The results of all procedures match the international standards.

Orthopaedics, Joint Replacement & Spine Surgery

Best Orthopaedics, Joint Replacement & Spine Surgery

We offer a wide spectrum of the most up-to-the-minute treatments for all kinds of musculo-skeletal problems and emergencies. The centre specializes in providing services including minimally invasive surgery, cartilage and bone transplantation, spine surgery and limb sparing surgery.

Paediatrics & Neonatology

Best Paediatrics & Neonatology

Metro Centre for Paediatrics & Neonatology is a top-notch centre for childcare which provides comprehensive paediatric, surgical, and immunization services to children up. We follow a holistic approach to treatment with our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric and Neonatal Emergency, etc.

Physiotherapy

Best Physiotherapy

The services in Physiotherapy & Rehabilitation include Consultation, Diagnostic: examination, S D curve, muscle testing, ADL testing, Manual therapy: active/assisted/passive/resisted/graded resisted exercise etc., physiotherapeutic interventional procedures, (home care) etc., Obstetric, gynecological clinic: antenatal and post natal care, and other management, Geriatric clinic: help in ADL activity, pain free activity, Fitness clinic, Posture correction clinic, Ergonomics clinic, etc.

Plastic, Cosmetic & Reconstructive Surgery

Best Plastic, Cosmetic & Reconstructive Surgery

The department has highly experienced specialists in cosmetic and plastic surgery, state-of -the-art infrastructure ensuring world class medical attention and care. It is an acknowledgement center of excellence providing advanced and intricate treatment. The center also offers the world superior quality cosmetic treatment at costs that are highly affordable, with results comparable to those at the best centers across the globe.

Psychiatry

Best Psychiatry

With the mission of spreading mental health awareness, we provide a variety of services ranging from awareness programmes to rehabilitations. The services provided are Pharmacotherapy, Electroconvulsive Therapy, Narcoanalysis, Biofeedback, Detoxification and Rehabilitation Programmes, Deaddiction Counseling, Stress Management, Couples/ Marital Counseling and many more.

Psychology

Best Psychology

We have a long experience in addressing the mental health conditions. Our experienced psychologists analyze the reasons behavioral disorder, emotional problem or psychiatric disease, and suggest and implement a valid solution to the problems customized to individual needs. The privacy of the patient is taken seriously during the total course of treatment.

Pulmonology & Sleep Medicine

Best Pulmonology & Sleep Medicine

World-renowned specialists and comprehensive advanced setup helps treat disorders related to the lungs, breathing and sleep with high success rate. The services include treatment of Asthma, COPD, Chronic Respiratory Failure, Sleep Disorders, Interstitial Lung Diseses, Tumours and Cancers of the Lung and Chest, Allergic Disorders, Laparoscopic Assisted Thoracic Surgeries.

Radiology

Best Radiology

A highly skilled team of experience Radiologists and Technicians comprises our Radiology Team. The highly advanced technology combined with high expertise ensures 100% accurate results which helps build right diagnosis. The facilities include: CT Scan (500 Slice), Advanced MRI (1.5 Tesla), 4D Ultrasound, Digital X-Ray, Bone Densitometry, Colour Doppler.

Rheumatology

Best Rheumatology

Highly specialized team is available to deal with diseases of the musculoskeletal system. The services include Treatment of auto immune diseases like Rheumatoid Arthritis, SLE, Ankylosing-spondylosis, gout and other immunological diseases, New Biological Treatments, 24x7 physiotherapy department to deal with musculoskeletal problems and Special emphasis on joint deformity correction

Urology

Best Urology

The Centre for Uro-Sciences boasts of experienced and renowned Urologists having thorough exposure to all urological disorders including complicated conditions. It is has good track record for high success rates. The treatment includes Laser prostatic surgery, Urologic Cancer Surgeries, Laparoscopic Urological Surgeries, Percutaneous Renal Surgery, Urethral Reconstructive Surgery, etc. and the facilities include ESWL (Extra corporeal shock wave Lithotripsy), Uroflowmetry, Uro Radio diagnosis, etc.

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